Figure 1. Electrochemically overgrown CuNi nano-pillarsThis image shows the CuNi nano-pillar structure, and it looks like lines of trees after we add colors on its structure (broccoli or mushroom?). Believe or not, application of 'nano-science' appeared a thousand years ago. Ancient Egyptian add gold into glass while they are melting, which eventually yields ruby glass as shown in figure 2. Of course, ancient Egyptian did not know that this is actually caused by gold nanoparticles that emerged during reheat process of glass (but they do know how to make these glass). Same for the white paint (its white color comes from titania nanoparticles that have equivalent band gap energy with white color) , which artist across the global have used it for centuries.
Figure 2. Ruby glass
As the microscope technology developed in past century, we are able to understand many unsolved questions by looking it at nano scale. The figure below shows the transformation in structure of CaCO3 on nano scale.
Figure 3. False color SEM image of warring CaCO3 polymorphs showing the transformation of vaterite (left) to the more stable calcite (right)Here are some links recommended for this topic:
 "Nano Orchard and Other Amazing Nanotechnology Images." Nano Orchard and Other Amazing Nanotechnology Images. Web. 21 May 2016.
 Lilley, Maiken. "The Art of Nanotech." PBS. PBS, 2010. Web. 21 May 2016.
 "Corning Museum of Glass." All About Glass. Web. 21 May 2016.
 "Paints." CIEC Promoting Science at the University of York, York, UK. Web. 21 May 2016.
 CHEM C180 Lecture by Professor Richard Kaner, spring quarter at UCLA